Ocean Encyclopedia


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segue to some seals - The pinnipeds

In littoral zones , breaking waves are so intense and the depth measurement so low, that maritime currents reach often 1 to 2 knots.

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ocean Animals

Ocean currents greatly affect Earth's climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland. Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation.

Relative distribution of the oceans

It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget. In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming , see shutdown of thermohaline circulation. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms. The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere. Oceanic evaporation , as a phase of the water cycle , is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land.

Gaming With Chris: Endless Ocean: Marine Encyclopedia

Life within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region. In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding.

Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins , seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles , also spend most of their time in the oceans. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher.

Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions. Salinity can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seawater. By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity:. The average chlorinity is about Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.

Some of the major harvests are shrimp , fish , crabs , and lobster. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves , are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface. The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell.

Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans. The gas giants , Jupiter and Saturn , are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen ; however their planetary geology is not well understood. The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised.

Although their composition is still not fully understood, a study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune, [59] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, though the water on Mars is no longer oceanic much of it residing in the ice caps. The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance.

Astronomers now think that Venus may have had liquid water and perhaps oceans for over 2 billion years. A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan , Europa , Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto , Ganymede [62] [63] and Triton.

Geysers have been found on Saturn's moon Enceladus , possibly originating from an ocean about 10 kilometers 6. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan , although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas. The Cassini—Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. Later flybys of Titan provided radar and infrared images that showed a series of hydrocarbon lakes in the colder polar regions.

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Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice in addition to the hydrocarbon mix that forms atop its outer crust. Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and icy mantle and may harbour a liquid-water ocean under its surface. Not enough is known of the larger trans-Neptunian objects to determine whether they are differentiated bodies capable of supporting oceans, although models of radioactive decay suggest that Pluto , [69] Eris , Sedna , and Orcus have oceans beneath solid icy crusts approximately to km thick.

Some planets and natural satellites outside the Solar System are likely to have oceans, including possible water ocean planets similar to Earth in the habitable zone or "liquid-water belt". The detection of oceans, even through the spectroscopy method, however is likely extremely difficult and inconclusive. Other possible candidates are merely speculated based on their mass and position in the habitable zone include planet though little is actually known of their composition. Some scientists speculate Keplerb may be an "ocean-like" planet.

Gliese b is speculated to have an ocean of "hot ice". Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean. There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so "super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.

Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out. Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids. Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune , it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Sea or World Ocean. Further information: Seawater. For other uses, see Ocean disambiguation.

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A body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. Further information: Borders of the oceans. Further information: Marine biology and Marine life. Further information: Wind wave. Further information: Extraterrestrial liquid water and List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System. Oceans portal Ecology portal Environment portal Geography portal Weather portal.

Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved May 17, Princeton University. Retrieved February 21, Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved February 5, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, UN Atlas of the Oceans.

July Geographical Review. Encyclopedia of Earth. International Hydrographic Organization. Retrieved 7 February Stuart Regional Oceanography: an Introduction 2 ed. Delhi: Daya Publishing House. As an approximation, the Arctic Ocean may be regarded as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean. The oceans occupy about 3. There are km of oceanic coastlines in the world. Ocean Facts. Retrieved 17 October The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 23 March Chemical Reviews. USA Today. New Scientist. October 5, Ardhuin, L. Rascle, P. Forget, and A. Roland, J. Banner and W.

Ocean - Wikipedia

Peirson, J. Fluid Mech. Marine Chemistry. Lecture 8. ERA Atlas. Annual Review of Marine Science. Bibcode : ARMS Dive down to the deepest place in the ocean, the Mariana Trench In , James Cameron dived to the bottom of the Mariana Trench in an underwater rocket ship called the Deepsea Challenger. Watch a video clip about the Earth's continents and oceans. Find out how creatures survive at the bottom of the ocean. More about ocean wildlife Scroll down for a video clip and an activity.


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